A Study Experiment On Work Hours, Gender, And Depression
Table of Contents
In contemporary society, stress has become an everyday word. This is increasingly important in the workplace; then, between the labor and personal demand, which comes from dissatisfaction, both psychological and physiological. Usually, stress emanates from the interaction between the person and the environment, that is, the balance is altered and when this happens we experience stress.
Mental and occupational health are relevant issues in the labor area to guarantee the well-being and quality of life of workers. For the World Health Organization (WHO), occupational health is one that: “tries to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all professions, a job appropriates to their physiological and psychological activities; that is, to adapt the work to the man and each man to his work”. Also, it allows human and professional enrichment at work.
In this way, it is important to generate, promote and protect safe and healthy work; at the same time, it seeks to enable workers to lead socially and economically productive lives in order to contribute to sustainable development. When studying the presence of psychic illnesses, such as depression, stress, anxiety and psychological problems that are widespread nowadays, it is of great relevance due to the magnitude of the problem, since professionals in the health area, in specific the relationship between stress-anxiety and depression at work.
Anxiety is considered a silent epidemic of the 21st century. The term comes from the Latin anxietas, referring to a state of agitation, restlessness or anxiety of the spirit, assuming one of the most frequent sensations of the human being, this is a complicated and unpleasant emotion manifested by emotional tension accompanied by a somatic correlate.
If chronic anxiety, secondary to traumatic stress, medical illness or induced by the use of psychoactive substances, is not treated, fear intensifies, phobias social, panic disorders and obsessive-compulsive personality. Izard (1992) argues that emotion is relatively non-cognitive, emotions are activated via the thalamus-amygdala apart from the neocortex and are independent of the cortical processing that cognition requires.
Physiologically, anxiety is the activation of the sympathetic branch of the nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS), it causes a series of physiological changes that are intended to prepare the body for greater physical or intellectual performance. It is a normal response of the body and there is nothing in it to be afraid of. It is an event that happens to us dozens of times a day without realizing it. The normal response is that the ANS activates and deactivates this branch periodically, that is, it activates it at a time when we require greater performance (what is called facilitative anxiety) and disconnects it when we no longer need it.
WHO points out that 450 million people suffer from mental health. In particular, depression and anxiety disorders are common mental health problems that affect work capacity and productivity. More than 300 million people in the world suffer from depression and more than 260 million have anxiety disorders. The United States of America reported in 2016 that 25% of its population suffers from anxiety, 3.6% from post-traumatic stress disorder and 2.8% generalized anxiety.
Stress starts from demands to pressures with exhausting and exhausting results manifested by headaches, muscle tension, upset stomach and other symptoms; a combination of anger or irritability, anxiety and depression, the three stress emotions; if it is not released it becomes chronic stress; it is exhausting it weakens and destroys the person in the psychosocial environment, they see no way out in the face of depressing situations, endless demands and pressures, without hope and the person abandons the search for solutions. Stressors, given in everyday life, are presented by both students and teachers; however, for health personnel the environment contributes; that is, the labor relationship with the pain of the patients and the situation of illness with serious states.
Depression represents a high burden for society, affecting 121 million people in the world, making it the third cause of morbidity among all diseases. According to the WHO, by 2020, depression will occupy the second cause of disability.
Symptoms include psychomotor and vegetative disorders whose physiological reactions tend to appear in the following forms: sleep disturbance, vertigo, dizziness, nausea, appetite disorder, reduced sexual interest, agitation, palpitations, instability, malaise, sweating and tremors.
Psychological signs such as: insecurity, fears, phobias, feelings of depersonalization and unreality, nervous behaviors or habits, lack of concentration, difficulties in memorizing, impatience and impulsiveness.
When the sympathetic branch of the ANS is stimulated and maintained for longer than it should be activated and for some reason it is not deactivated, some physical symptoms remain, which are normal when they persist for a short time but become very unpleasant when they are present for a long time or have a high intensity. Depression is an epidemic, but nobody talks about it. Are there variations across businesses when it comes to stress, anxiety, and depression at work? In this contribution, we carry out an experiment to verify the existence of differences in the perceived stress of employees belonging to different companies.
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